Fast Talk, ep. 30: Myth Busters: Why we can’t talk about lactic acid

The VeloNews Fast Talk podcast is your source for the best advice and most interesting insight on what it takes to become a better cyclist. Listen in as VeloNews columnist Trevor Connor and editor Caley Fretz discuss a range of topics, including training, physiology, technology, and more.

Ouch, it burns! But what is “it” — the root cause of the pain in your legs when you smash it up a hard climb? For the longest time, we colloquially called “it” lactic acid. It turns out that was wrong.

Coach Trevor Connor and Caley Fretz examine the chemistry that occurs in our muscles while riding and racing. They talk to Dr. Iñigo San Millán, who is the director of Colorado University’s exercise physiology lab. Best of all, they give you practical advice for your own training to help make that burn go away — or at least make you faster even if it hurts.

Fast Talk is available on all your favorite podcast services, including iTunes, Stitcher, Google Play, and Soundcloud. If you enjoy the podcast, please consider taking a moment to rate and comment on iTunes after listening. Also, check out the VeloNews Cycling Podcast, our weekly discussion of the sport’s hottest topics, trends, and controversies.

References:

(Benton, et al., 2008; Bonen, 2001; Cairns, 2006; Gladden, 2001; Green, et al., 2002; Mainwood & Renaud, 1985; Messonnier, et al., 2013; San-Millan & Brooks, 2017; Thomas, Bishop, Moore-Morris, & Mercier, 2007; Thomas, Bishop, Lambert, Mercier, & Brooks, 2012; van Hall, 2010)

Benton, C. R., Yoshida, Y., Lally, J., Han, X. X., Hatta, H., & Bonen, A. (2008). PGC-1alpha increases skeletal muscle lactate uptake by increasing the expression of MCT1 but not MCT2 or MCT4. Physiol Genomics, 35(1), 45-54. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.90217.2008
Bonen, A. (2001). The expression of lactate transporters (MCT1 and MCT4) in heart and muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol, 86(1), 6-11. doi: 10.1007/s004210100516
Cairns, S. P. (2006). Lactic acid and exercise performance : culprit or friend? Sports Med, 36(4), 279-291.
Gladden, L. B. (2001). Lactic acid: New roles in a new millennium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98(2), 395-397. doi: 10.1073/pnas.98.2.395
Green, H., Halestrap, A., Mockett, C., O’Toole, D., Grant, S., & Ouyang, J. (2002). Increases in muscle MCT are associated with reductions in muscle lactate after a single exercise session in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 282(1), E154-160.
Mainwood, G. W., & Renaud, J. M. (1985). The effect of acid-base balance on fatigue of skeletal muscle. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 63(5), 403-416.
Messonnier, L. A., Emhoff, C. A. W., Fattor, J. A., Horning, M. A., Carlson, T. J., & Brooks, G. A. (2013). Lactate kinetics at the lactate threshold in trained and untrained men. [Article]. Journal of Applied Physiology, 114(11), 1593-1602. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00043.2013
San-Millan, I., & Brooks, G. A. (2017). Reexamining cancer metabolism: lactate production for carcinogenesis could be the purpose and explanation of the Warburg Effect. [Review]. Carcinogenesis, 38(2), 119-133. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgw127
Thomas, C., Bishop, D., Moore-Morris, T., & Mercier, J. (2007). Effects of high-intensity training on MCT1, MCT4, and NBC expressions in rat skeletal muscles: influence of chronic metabolic alkalosis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 293(4), E916-922. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00164.2007
Thomas, C., Bishop, D. J., Lambert, K., Mercier, J., & Brooks, G. A. (2012). Effects of acute and chronic exercise on sarcolemmal MCT1 and MCT4 contents in human skeletal muscles: current status. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 302(1), R1-14. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00250.2011
van Hall, G. (2010). Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise. [Review]. Acta Physiologica, 199(4), 499-508. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2010.02122.x

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Fast Talk podcast, ep. 29: The future of bikes

The VeloNews Fast Talk podcast is your source for the best advice and most interesting insight on what it takes to become a better cyclist. Listen in as VeloNews columnist Trevor Connor and editor Caley Fretz discuss a range of topics, including training, physiology, technology, and more.

What will bikes look like in five years? What will they ride like? We and joined by VN tech crew Dan Cavallari and Kristen Legan to dig into the future of bikes.

Fast Talk is available on all your favorite podcast services, including iTunes, Stitcher, Google Play, and Soundcloud. If you enjoy the podcast, please consider taking a moment to rate and comment on iTunes after listening. Also, check out the VeloNews Cycling Podcast, our weekly discussion of the sport’s hottest topics, trends, and controversies.

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Fast Talk podcast, ep. 28: Why we need an off-season with Dr. Andy Pruitt

The VeloNews Fast Talk podcast is your source for the best advice and most interesting insight on what it takes to become a better cyclist. Listen in as VeloNews columnist Trevor Connor and editor Caley Fretz discuss a range of topics, including training, physiology, technology, and more.

Taking time off can feel strange, but it’s absolutely necessary. Why do you need an off-season? Can’t you just keep riding? We sit down with Dr. Andy Pruitt to discuss the physiological and psychological needs of athletes, and how an off-season is crucial to meeting those needs.

Fast Talk is available on all your favorite podcast services, including iTunes, Stitcher, Google Play, and Soundcloud. If you enjoy the podcast, please consider taking a moment to rate and comment on iTunes after listening. Also, check out the VeloNews Cycling Podcast, our weekly discussion of the sport’s hottest topics, trends, and controversies.

References

1. Mujika, I. and S. Padilla, Muscular characteristics of detraining in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001. 33(8): p. 1297-303.
2. St-Amand, J., et al., Effects of mild-exercise training cessation in human skeletal muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2012. 112(3): p. 853-69.
3. Tanaka, H., Effects of cross-training. Transfer of training effects on VO2max between cycling, running and swimming. Sports Med, 1994. 18(5): p. 330-9.
4. Ronnestad, B.R., A. Askestad, and J. Hansen, HIT maintains performance during the transition period and improves next season performance in well-trained cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2014. 114(9): p. 1831-9.
5. Issurin, V.B., Training transfer: scientific background and insights for practical application. Sports Med, 2013. 43(8): p. 675-94.
6. Barry, D.W. and W.M. Kohrt, BMD decreases over the course of a year in competitive male cyclists. J Bone Miner Res, 2008. 23(4): p. 484-91.
7. Mojock, C.D., et al., Comparisons of Bone Mineral Density Between Recreational and Trained Male Road Cyclists. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 2016. 26(2): p. 152-156.

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Fast Talk podcast, ep. 27: Who can you trust for training advice?

The VeloNews Fast Talk podcast is your source for the best advice and most interesting insight on what it takes to become a better cyclist. Listen in as VeloNews columnist Trevor Connor and editor Caley Fretz discuss a range of topics, including training, physiology, technology, and more.

Who should you trust? How can you verify? There’s a lot of training advice out there, often contradictory, so what’s the best way for an athlete figure out what to do?

We are joined by pro cyclist Sepp Kuss and the founder of FasCat coaching, Frank Overton, to dig into dealing with contradictory advice.

Fast Talk is available on all your favorite podcast services, including iTunes, Stitcher, Google Play, and Soundcloud. If you enjoy the podcast, please consider taking a moment to rate and comment on iTunes after listening. Also, check out the VeloNews Cycling Podcast, our weekly discussion of the sport’s hottest topics, trends, and controversies.

References

1. Cook, N. R., Appel, L. J., & Whelton, P. K. (2014). Lower levels of sodium intake and reduced cardiovascular risk. Circulation, 129(9), 981-989. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.006032
2. Cook, N. R., Appel, L. J., & Whelton, P. K. (2016). Sodium Intake and All-Cause Mortality Over 20 Years in the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. J Am Coll Cardiol, 68(15), 1609-1617. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.07.745
3. Gore, C. J., Clark, S. A., & Saunders, P. U. (2007). Nonhematological mechanisms of improved sea-level performance after hypoxic exposure. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39(9), 1600-1609. doi: 10.1249/mss.0b013e3180de49d3
4. Ji, C., Miller, M. A., Venezia, A., Strazzullo, P., & Cappuccio, F. P. (2014). Comparisons of spot vs 24-h urine samples for estimating population salt intake: validation study in two independent samples of adults in Britain and Italy. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 24(2), 140-147. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2013.06.011
5. O’Donnell, M., Mente, A., Rangarajan, S., McQueen, M. J., Wang, X., Liu, L., et al. (2014). Urinary sodium and potassium excretion, mortality, and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med, 371(7), 612-623. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1311889
6. Pfister, R., Michels, G., Sharp, S. J., Luben, R., Wareham, N. J., & Khaw, K. T. (2014). Estimated urinary sodium excretion and risk of heart failure in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk study. Eur J Heart Fail, 16(4), 394-402. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.56
7. Santalla, A., Naranjo, J., & Terrados, N. (2009). Muscle efficiency improves over time in world-class cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41(5), 1096-1101. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318191c802
8. Solien, J., Haynes, V., & Giulivi, C. (2005). Differential requirements of calcium for oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial nitric-oxide synthase under hypoxia: impact on the regulation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol, 142(2), 111-117. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpb.2005.05.004

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Fast Talk podcast, ep. 26: Cramping myths debunked

The VeloNews Fast Talk podcast is your source for the best advice and most interesting insight on what it takes to become a better cyclist. Listen in as VeloNews columnist Trevor Connor and editor Caley Fretz discuss a range of topics, including training, physiology, technology, and more.

For decades (almost a century, in fact), we’ve been told that cramping is caused by electrolyte imbalance or bad hydration. But new science suggests that this probably isn’t why you cramp during exercise.

So why do you cramp? It all comes down to something called altered neuromuscular control. And how do you stop it? Well, that’s where things get even trickier. Listen in to find out.

Fast Talk is available on all your favorite podcast services, including iTunes, Stitcher, Google Play, and Soundcloud. If you enjoy the podcast, please consider taking a moment to rate and comment on iTunes after listening. Also, check out the VeloNews Cycling Podcast, our weekly discussion of the sport’s hottest topics, trends, and controversies.

References

Hutton, R. S., & Nelson, D. L. (1986). STRETCH SENSITIVITY OF GOLGI TENDON ORGANS IN FATIGUED GASTROCNEMIUS-MUSCLE. [Article]. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 18(1), 69-74.
Miller, K. C., Mack, G. W., Knight, K. L., Hopkins, J. T., Draper, D. O., Fields, P. J., et al. (2010). Three percent hypohydration does not affect threshold frequency of electrically induced cramps. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(11), 2056-2063. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181dd5e3a
Nelson, D. L., & Hutton, R. S. (1985). DYNAMIC AND STATIC STRETCH RESPONSES IN MUSCLE-SPINDLE RECEPTORS IN FATIGUED MUSCLE. [Article]. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 17(4), 445-450. doi: 10.1249/00005768-198508000-00007
Nelson, N. L., & Churilla, J. R. (2016). A narrative review of exercise-associated muscle cramps: Factors that contribute to neuromuscular fatigue and management implications. Muscle Nerve, 54(2), 177-185. doi: 10.1002/mus.25176
Schwellnus, M. P. (2009). Cause of exercise associated muscle cramps (EAMC)–altered neuromuscular control, dehydration or electrolyte depletion? Br J Sports Med, 43(6), 401-408. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2008.050401
Schwellnus, M. P., Allie, S., Derman, W., & Collins, M. (2011). Increased running speed and pre-race muscle damage as risk factors for exercise-associated muscle cramps in a 56 km ultra-marathon: a prospective cohort study. Br J Sports Med, 45(14), 1132-1136. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.082677
Schwellnus, M. P., Derman, E. W., & Noakes, T. D. (1997). Aetiology of skeletal muscle ‘cramps’ during exercise: a novel hypothesis. J Sports Sci, 15(3), 277-285. doi: 10.1080/026404197367281
Schwellnus, M. P., Drew, N., & Collins, M. (2011). Increased running speed and previous cramps rather than dehydration or serum sodium changes predict exercise-associated muscle cramping: a prospective cohort study in 210 Ironman triathletes. Br J Sports Med, 45(8), 650-656. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.078535
Shang, G., Collins, M., & Schwellnus, M. P. (2011). Factors associated with a self-reported history of exercise-associated muscle cramps in Ironman triathletes: a case-control study. Clin J Sport Med, 21(3), 204-210. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31820bcbfd
Wagner, T., Behnia, N., Ancheta, W. K., Shen, R., Farrokhi, S., & Powers, C. M. (2010). Strengthening and neuromuscular reeducation of the gluteus maximus in a triathlete with exercise-associated cramping of the hamstrings. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 40(2), 112-119. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2010.3110

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